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Types of Disorders

Personality Disorders
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviours that are unhealthy and inflexible. The behaviours cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people.
The cause of personality disorders is unknown. However, genes and childhood experiences may play a role.
The symptoms of each personality disorder are different. They can be mild or severe. People with personality disorders may have trouble realizing that they have a problem. To them, their thoughts are normal, and they often blame others for their problems. They may try to get help because of their problems with relationships and work. Treatment usually includes talk therapy and sometimes medicine.

Mood disorders

As the name suggests, mood disorder is a condition impacting mood and related functions. In a mood disorder, moods range from extremely low (depressed) to extremely high or irritable (manic). Mood disorders can lead to changes in sleeping and eating patterns. Some people, especially children, may have physical symptoms like unexplained headaches or stomach aches. Four basic forms of mood disorders are: major depression, cyclothymia (a mild form of bipolar disorder), SAD (seasonal affective disorder) and mania (euphoric, hyperactive, over inflated ego, unrealistic optimism.)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and sense of well-being. People with depressed mood can feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable or restless. They may lose interest in activities that were once pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions, and may contemplate, attempt or commit suicide. 

Bipolar Disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is not as common as major depression or persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycling mood changes—from extreme highs (e.g., mania) to extreme lows (e.g., depression).
Most likely, mood disorders are caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Dissociative Disorders
The essential feature of the Dissociative Disorders is a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. The disturbance may be sudden or gradual, transient or chronic.

Dissociative disorders are of various types such as dissociative amnesia (when one can’t remember incidents or experiences that happened at a particular time, or even some important personal information such as one’s name, family, address etc.); dissociative fugue (One may travel to a new location during a temporary loss of identity. He/she may then assume a different identity and a new life. Usually this ‘fugue’ will last for a few days, but it can last longer); dissociative identity disorder (also known as multiple personality disorder, this involves experiencing the shifts of identity as separate personalities where each identity may be in control of one’s behaviour and thoughts at different times with no awareness of what happens when the other identity is in control); depersonalization disorder (in which one experiences strong feelings of detachment from their own body or feel that their body is unreal. It may also include mild to moderate derealisation and mild identity confusion.)

Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can actually be beneficial in some situations. For some people, however, anxiety can become excessive. While the person suffering may realize their anxiety is too much, they may also have difficulty controlling it and it may negatively affect their day-to-day living. Thus, Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a racing heart and shakiness.

There are various types of anxiety disorders:
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common, chronic disorder characterized by long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any one object or situation. Those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry, and become overly concerned with everyday matters.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder primarily characterized by repetitive obsessions (distressing, persistent, and intrusive thoughts or images) and compulsions (urges to perform specific acts or rituals). 
Panic disorder: With panic disorder, a person suffers from brief attacks of intense terror and apprehension, often marked by trembling, shaking, confusion, dizziness, nausea, and/or difficulty breathing. These panic attacks, defined by the APA as fear or discomfort that abruptly arises and peaks in less than ten minutes, can last for several hours.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may follow a severe trauma such as a serious assault or life-threatening accident. Symptoms last at least one month, often much longer. Anxiety is only one symptom which may come and go.

Social phobia (or social anxiety disorder): With this disorder, you become very anxious about what other people may think of you, or how they may judge you. Therefore, you fear meeting people, or 'performing' in front of other people, especially strangers.

Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Disturbed sleep includes the inability to fall asleep, the inability to go back to sleep, and frequent waking up during the night. Sleep disorders can make you feel tired, fatigued, and irritable, making it difficult for you to concentrate during the day.
Primary Sleep Disorders are presumed to arise from endogenous abnormalities in sleep-wake generating or timing mechanisms, often complicated by conditioning factors.
Primary Sleep Disorders in turn are subdivided into Dyssomnias (characterized by abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep) and Parasomnias (characterized by abnormal behavioural or physiological events occurring in association with sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-wake transitions).

Eating Disorders
Eating disorders are psychological illnesses defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual's physical and mental health. Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are the most common specific forms of eating disorders. Other types of eating disorders include binge eating disorder and OSFED. Eating disorders include extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviours surrounding weight and food issues. They are serious emotional and physical problems that can have life-threatening consequences for females and males.
Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.
Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviours such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise.
A disturbance in perception of body shape and weight is an essential feature of both Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

Sexual Disorders
As defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the clinician’s diagnostic bible), Sexual Disorders constitute three types of disorders: Sexual Dysfunctions, Paraphilia and Gender Identity Disorders.
paraphilia are disorders of deviant sexuality. They involve recurrent fantasies, urges or behaviours of a sexual nature that center around children, non-humans (animals, objects, materials), or harming others or one’s self.
The Sexual Dysfunctions are characterized by disturbance in sexual desire and in the psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. The Sexual Dysfunctions include Sexual Desire Disorders (i.e., Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Aversion Disorder), Sexual Arousal Disorders (i.e., Female Sexual Arousal Disorder, Male Erectile Disorder), Orgasmic Disorders (i.e., Female Orgasmic Disorder, Male Orgasmic Disorder, Premature Ejaculation), Sexual Pain Disorders (i.e., Dyspareunia, Vaginismus), Sexual Dysfunction Due to a General Medical Condition, Substance- Induced Sexual Dysfunction, and Sexual Dysfunction Not Otherwise Specified.
Gender Identity Disorders are characterized by strong and persistent cross-gender identification accompanied by persistent discomfort with one's assigned sex.

Internet Addiction

The Internet is the largest and most the versatile source of information in the world today. With its web sites and chat rooms, it is a way of communication and a source of information that has become indispensible. Entertainment is another popular reason why many people prefer to surf the Internet. In fact, the Internet has become quite successful in trapping the multifaceted entertainment industry.

The Internet offers a sense of freedom to explore the world to all. But with this newfound freedom, also comes the possibility of abuse and addiction. 
 As the web has become a part of mainstream life, some mental health professionals have noted that a percentage of people using the web do so in a compulsive and out-of-control manner. It is also known in developed countries as internet addiction. Internet addiction, also known as Pathological Internet use, has emerged as a very destructive force in today's society. An estimated 6 percent of the web user's 100 million people are thought to be online addicts and that number is growing every day.

In a true addiction, a person becomes compulsively dependent upon a particular kind of stimulation to the point where obtaining a steady supply of that stimulation becomes the sole and central focus of their lives. The addict increasingly neglects his work duties, relationships and ultimately even his health in her/his drive to remain stimulated. 
In this case, the addict’s stimulation is the use of internet constantly.

Types of Internet Addiction

Internet Addiction, computer addiction, online addiction, or Internet addiction disorder (IAD), covers a variety of impulse-control problems, including: 

Cybersex Addiction – compulsive use of Internet pornography, adult chat rooms, or adult fantasy role-play sites impacting negatively on real-life intimate relationships.
Cyber-Relationship Addiction – addiction to social networking, chat rooms, texting, and messaging to the point where virtual, online friends become more important than real-life relationships with family and friends.
Net Compulsions – such as compulsive online gaming, gambling, stock trading, or compulsive use of online auction sites such as eBay, often resulting in financial and job-related problems. 
Information Overload – compulsive web surfing or database searching, leading to lower work productivity and less social interaction with family and friends.
Computer Addiction – obsessive playing of off-line computer games, such as Solitaire or Minesweeper, or obsessive computer programming.
Online Shopping: The obsessed individual constantly engages in shopping online, almost on a regular basis on different sites, ignoring his/her financial state. It becomes so addictive that even the addict runs out of money, she/he will spend hours constantly surfing the shopping websites ignoring all other responsibilities.
How do people get addicted to internet?
Many people turn to the Internet in order to manage unpleasant feelings such as stress, loneliness, depression, and anxiety. When one has a bad day and is looking for a way to escape your problems or to quickly relieve stress or self-soothe, the Internet can be an easily accessible outlet. Losing one online can temporarily make feelings such as loneliness, stress; anxiety, depression, and boredom evaporate into thin air.
These people need to fill the void that has been created by not having any real life relationships, so they turn to the Internet, just as if someone would turn to drugs. More than 90 percent of addicts became addicted to two-way communications functions: chat rooms, MUDs (Multi- User Dungeons), news groups, and e-mail. Warning signs of Internet Addiction
Preoccupation with the Internet.  (Thoughts about previous on-line activity or anticipation of the next on-line session.)
Use of the Internet in increasing amounts of time in order to achieve satisfaction.
Repeated, unsuccessful efforts to control or cut back or stop Internet use.
Feelings of restlessness, moodiness, depression, or irritability when attempting to cut down use of the Internet.
On-line longer than originally intended.
Jeopardized or risked loss of significant relationships, job, educational or career opportunities because of Internet use.
Lies to family members, therapists, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with the Internet.
Use of the Internet is a way to escape from problems or to relieve a depressed mood.  (E.g. Feelings of hopelessness, guilt, anxiety, depression.)
Help is available!
Help for Internet related addiction is available from multiple sources. Anyone concerned about serious problem Internet usage should consider consulting with a local licensed psychologist, social worker or counselor, specifically one with experience treating addictions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy provides step-by-step ways to stop compulsive Internet behaviors and change ones perceptions regarding Internet, Smartphone, and computer use. Therapy can also help one learn healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable emotions, such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
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